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Israel ranks as the 4th least peaceful country (surprise surprise)

Mary Rizzo, PTT

israel_tank_v.jpg

December 1, 2009

Israel_tank_vThe Global Peace Index Rankings have been released. Vision of Humanity has published them, and nothing there is surprising. The least peaceful nation is Iraq, followed by Afghanistan, Somalia and in the fourth position: Israel. Not surprising, as on many of the parametres used to measure peace. quite specifically respect for human rights, they fall short again and again. 144 countries were ranked in 2009. You can visit the chart, click on a country to see the detail of its peace indicators and drivers. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/results/rankings.php

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/results/israel/2009/ Israel (clicking on that will open up a lot of links).
Israel: Overall peace index
 
Rank 141
Score 3.035
Peace Index scores from 1 to 5 where 1 = most peaceful.
Ranked out of 144 countries where rank 1 = most peaceful country.
Click on an indicator or driver title for more detailed information
Indicator information – THE HIGHER THE NUMBER, THE LESS PEACEFUL 
2.5 =Number of external and internal conflicts fought: 2002-2007
UCDP defines conflict as: "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or
territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year"

2 = Estimated number of deaths from organised conflict (external)
UCDP defines conflict as: "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year".

3  = Number of deaths from organised conflict (internal)
UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset records the number of battle deaths per conflict, defined as: "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year"

4 = Level of organised conflict (internal)
Qualitative assessment of the intensity of conflicts within the country. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts. 2008 Data.

Source: the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), Uppsala University, Sweden

The separate elements of the definition are as follows:
(1) Use of armed force: use of arms in order to promote the parties' general position in the conflict, resulting in deaths.
(1.1) Arms: any material means, e.g. manufactured weapons but also sticks, stones, fire, water, etc.
(2) 25 deaths: a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths per year and per incompatibility.
(3) Party: a government of a state or any opposition organization or alliance of opposition organizations.
(3.1) Government: the party controlling the capital of the state.
(3.2) Opposition organization: any non-governmental group of people having announced a name for their group and using armed force.
(4) State: a state is
(4.1) an internationally recognized sovereign government controlling a specified territory, or
(4.2) an internationally unrecognized government controlling a specified territory whose sovereignty is not disputed by another internationally recognized sovereign government previously controlling the same territory.
(5) Incompatibility concerning government and/or territory the incompatibility, as stated by the parties, must concern government and/or territory.
(5.1) Incompatibility: the stated generally incompatible positions.
(5.2) Incompatibility concerning government: incompatibility concerning type of political system, the replacement of the central government or the change of its composition.
Incompatibility concerning territory: incompatibility concerning the status of a territory, e.g. the change of the state in control of a certain territory (interstate conflict), secession or autonomy (intrastate conflict).

Source: the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), Uppsala University, Sweden

The separate elements of the definition are as follows:
(1) Use of armed force: use of arms in order to promote the parties' general position in the conflict, resulting in deaths.
(1.1) Arms: any material means, e.g. manufactured weapons but also sticks, stones, fire, water, etc.
(2) 25 deaths: a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths per year and per incompatibility.
(3) Party: a government of a state or any opposition organization or alliance of opposition organizations.
(3.1) Government: the party controlling the capital of the state.
(3.2) Opposition organization: any non-governmental group of people having announced a name for their group and using armed force.
(4) State: a state is
(4.1) an internationally recognized sovereign government controlling a specified territory, or
(4.2) an internationally unrecognized government controlling a specified territory whose sovereignty is not disputed by another internationally recognized sovereign government previously controlling the same territory.
(5) Incompatibility concerning government and/or territory the incompatibility, as stated by the parties, must concern government and/or territory.
(5.1) Incompatibility: the stated generally incompatible positions.
(5.2) Incompatibility concerning government: incompatibility concerning type of political system, the replacement of the central government or the change of its composition.
Incompatibility concerning territory: incompatibility concerning the status of a territory, e.g. the change of the state in control of a certain territory (interstate conflict), secession or autonomy (intrastate conflict).

UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset records the number of battle deaths per conflict, defined as: "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year". EIU analysts, then, have clustered the figures available for 2005 and 2006 in bands:

1=0-24, 2=25-999, 3=1000-4999, 4=5000-9999, 5=> 10000

The separate elements of the definition are as follows:
(1) Use of armed force: use of arms in order to promote the parties' general position in the conflict, resulting in deaths.
(1.1) Arms: any material means, e.g. manufactured weapons but also sticks, stones, fire, water, etc.
(2) 25 deaths: a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths per year and per incompatibility.
(3) Party: a government of a state or any opposition organization or alliance of opposition organizations.
(3.1) Government: the party controlling the capital of the state.
(3.2) Opposition organization: any non-governmental group of people having announced a name for their group and using armed force.
(4) State: a state is
(4.1) an internationally recognized sovereign government controlling a specified territory, or
(4.2) an internationally unrecognized government controlling a specified territory whose sovereignty is not disputed by another internationally recognized sovereign government previously controlling the same territory.
(5) Incompatibility concerning government and/or territory the incompatibility, as stated by the parties, must concern government and/or territory.
(5.1) Incompatibility: the stated generally incompatible positions.
(5.2) Incompatibility concerning government: incompatibility concerning type of political system, the replacement of the central government or the change of its composition.
Incompatibility concerning territory: incompatibility concerning the status of a territory, e.g. the change of the state in control of a certain territory (interstate conflict), secession or autonomy (intrastate conflict).

4 = Relations with neighbouring countries
Qualitative assessment of relations with neighbouring countries. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts. 2008 Data.
4 = Perceptions of criminality in society
Qualitative assessment of level of distrust in other citizens. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts

1 = Number of displaced people as a percentage of the population
Refugee population by country or territory of origin, as a percentage of the country's total population. UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2007.

A qualitative assessment of the level of distrust in other citizens, ranked from 1-5 (very low to very high) by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Country Analysis team. The lowest score (1) records that the majority of other people can be trusted and that there is an overall positive climate of trust in the country. The highest score (5) indicates that people are extremely cautious in dealing with others.

2.25 = Political instability
Qualitative assessment of level of political instability. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts

4 = Respect for human rights
A qualitative measure of the level of political terror through an analysis of Amnesty International's Yearbook.

3.5 = Potential for terriorist acts
Qualitative assessment of the potential for terrorist acts. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts Close

This indicator addresses the degree to which political institutions are sufficiently stable to support the needs of its citizens, businesses and overseas investors. It is a composite indicator based on the scores, 1 to 5 for each of the following issues: What is the risk of significant social unrest during the next two years? How clear, established, and accepted are constitutional mechanisms for the orderly transfer of power from one government to another? How likely is it that an opposition party or group will come to power and cause a significant deterioration in business operating conditions? Is excessive power concentrated or likely to be concentrated, in the executive so that executive authority lacks accountability and possesses excessive discretion? Is there a risk that international disputes/tensions will negatively affect the economy and/or polity?

Mark Gibney and Matthew Dalton, from the University of North Carolina, have coded countries on a 1 to 5 scale according to their level of terror the previous year, based on the description provided in the Amnesty International Yearbook (in this case the 2007 Yearbook, referring to 2006 data). There is an additional index coded on a 1 to 5 scale based on a close analysis of Country Reports from the US State Department. Amnesty International scores have been used where available, with US State Department scores used to fill missing data.

- Level 1 is scored if the country operates under a secure rule of law. People are not imprisoned for their views and torture is rare or exceptional. Politically-motivated murders are extremely rare;
- Level 2 points that there is a limited amount of imprisonment for non-violent political activity. However, few persons are affected and torture and beatings are exceptional. Politically-motivated murder is rare;
- Level 3. Imprisonment for political activity is more extensive. Politically-motivated executions or other political murders and brutality are common. Unlimited detention, with or without a trial, for political views is also commonplace;
- Level 4. The practices of level 3 affect a larger portion of the population and murders, disappearances and torture are a common part of life. In spite of its pervasiveness, on this level political terror affects those who interest themselves in politics;
- Level 5. The terrors characteristic of level 4 countries encompass the whole population at level 5. The leaders of these societies place no limits on the means or thoroughness with which they pursue personal or ideological goals.

2 = Number of homicides per 100,000 people
Intentional homicide refers to death deliberately inflicted on a person by another person, including infanticide.

2 = Level of violent crime
Qualitative assessment of the level of violent crime. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts

This indicator has been compiled using UNODC figures (10th, 9th and 8th Survey of Criminal Trends) rather than Interpol data. The figures refer to the total number of penal code offences or their equivalent, but excluding minor road traffic and other petty offences, brought to the attention of the police or other law enforcement agencies and recorded by one of those agencies. The latest Interpol figures used are for 1998/99 and the consensus among experts on the analysis of criminal justice is that the UNODC figures are more reliable – they are compiled from a standard questionnaire sent to national officials via the UN statistical office. However, the UN acknowledges that international comparisons of crime statistics are beset by methodological difficulties:

* Different definitions for specific crime types: The category in which any incident of victimization is recorded relies on the legal definition of crime in any country. Should that definition be different, which is often the case, comparisons will not be made of exactly the same crime type. This is particularly the case in crimes that require some discretion from a police officer or relevant authority when they are identified. For example, the definitional difference between serious or common assault in different legal jurisdictions may be different, and this will be reflected in the total number of incidents recorded.

* Different levels of reporting and traditions of policing: This relates closely to levels of development in a society, most clearly reflected in accessibility to the police. Factors such as the number of police stations or telephones impact upon reporting levels. The level of insurance coverage in a community is also a key indicator of the likelihood of citizens approaching the police as their claim for compensation may require such notification. In addition, in societies where the police are or have been mistrusted by the population, most specifically during periods of authoritarian rule, reporting levels are likely to be lower than in cases where the police are regarded as important members of the community.

* Different social, economic and political contexts: Comparing crime data from societies that are fundamentally different may ignore key issues present in the society that impact upon levels of reporting. For example, different social norms in some countries may make it difficult for women to report cases of rape or sexual abuse, while in others, women are encouraged to come forward. The level of insurance coverage in a community is also a key indicator of the likelihood of citizens approaching the police as their claim for compensation may require such notification. In addition, in societies where the police are or have been mistrusted by the population, most specifically during periods of authoritarian rule, reporting levels are likely to be lower than in cases where the police are regarded as important members of the community.

The International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) is perhaps a more sensitive and accurate measure of crime – and arguably offers a picture of how the public views the criminal justice system – but is currently limited to a few, mainly industrialised, countries so these data are not included.

Where data are not present, The Economist Intelligence Unit's analysts have estimated figures based on their deep knowledge of each country. All the figures for homicides per 100,000 people have been banded as:

1=0-1.9, 2=2-5.9, 3=6-9.9, 4=10-19.9, 5= >20

2 = Likelihood of violent demonstrations
Qualitative assessment of the level of violent demonstrations. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts
2.5 = Number of jailed population per 100,000 people
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, King's College London, World Prison Population List

2 = Number of internal security officers and police 100,000 people
Refers to the civil police force as distinct from national guards or local militia

3 =  Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP
Cash outlays of central or federal government to meet the costs of national armed forces – including strategic, land, naval, air, command, administration and support forces as well as paramilitary forces, customs forces and border guards if these are trained and equipped as a military force.

The data have been banded:

1=0-69, 2=70-139, 3=140-209, 4=210-279, 5=> 280

The original figures have been taken from UNODC, 10th, 9th and 8th UN Survey of Criminal Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UNCJS) and refer to the civil police force as distinct from national guards or local militia. Where there are gaps, EIU analysts have filled the gaps and clustered data in bands:

1 = 0-199, 2 = 200-399, 3 = 400-599, 4 = 600-799, 5 = > 800

5 = Number of armed services personnel per 100,000 people
Active armed services personnel comprises all servicemen and women on full-time duty in the army, navy, air force and joint forces (including conscripts and long-term assignments from the Reserves)
4.5 = Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as supplier (exports) per 100,000 people
The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database covers all international sales and gifts of major conventional weapons and the technology necessary for the production of them. The transfer equipment or technology is from one country, rebel force or international organisation to another country, rebel force or international organisation. Major conventional weapons include: aircraft, armoured vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, ships, engines.
5 = Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons, as recipient (Imports) per 100,000 people
The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database covers all international sales and gifts of major conventional weapons and the technology necessary for the production of them. The transfer equipment or technology is from one country, rebel force or international organisation to another country, rebel force or international organisation. Major conventional weapons include: aircraft, armoured vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, ships, engines.
1 =  Funding for UN peacekeeping missions (percentage of assessed contribution)
Calculation of percentage of countries’ outstanding contributions versus annual assessment to the budget of the current peacekeeping missions. Source: United Nations.
5 = Aggregate number of heavy weapons per 100,000 people
Source: Bonn International Centre for Conversion (BICC)

3 = Ease of access to weapons of minor destruction
Qualitative assessment of the ease of access to small arms and light weapons. Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts.

The BICC Weapon Holdings Database contains figures for four weapon categories: armoured vehicles, artillery, combat aircraft, major fighting ships. The numbers of weapons in these categories have been indexed, with 1996 as the fixed base year. Holdings are those of government forces and do not include holdings of armed opposition groups. Weapon systems in storage are also not included. Indices for groups are directly calculated from the aggregated numbers of holdings of heavy weapons, as follows:

1=0-199, 2=200-999, 3=1000-2999, 4=3000-6999, 5=> 7000

5 = Military capability/sophistication
Qualitative assessment of the grade of sophistication and the extent of military research and development (R&D) Ranked 1-5 (very low-very high) by EIU analysts

Democracy and Transparency 

9.17 = Electoral process
Qualitative assessment of whether elections are competitive in that electors are free to vote and are offered a range of choices. Ranked 1- 10 (very low to very high)

Source: EIU Democracy Index; Year: 2008

7.5 = Functioning of government
Qualitative assessment of whether freely elected representatives determine government policy. Is there an effective system of checks and balances on the exercise of government authority? Ranked 1- 10 (very low to very high). Source: EIU Democracy Index; Year: 2008
8.33 = Political participation
Qualitative assessment of voter participation/turn-out for national elections, citizens' engagement with politics. Ranked 1- 10 (very low to very high)

Source: EIU Democracy Index; Year: 2008

7.5 =Political culture
Qualitative assessment of the degree of societal consensus and cohesion to underpin a stable, functioning democracy; score the level of separation of church and state. Ranked 1- 10 (very low to very high)

Source: EIU Democracy Index; Year: 2008

5 = Civil liberties
Qualitative assessment of the prevalence of civil liberties. Is there a free electronic media? Is there a free print media? Is there freedom of expression and protest? Are citizens free to form professional organisations and trade unions? Ranked 1- 10 (very low to very high)

Source: EIU Democracy Index; Year: 2008

6 = Corruption perceptions (CPI score: 10 = highly clean, 0 = highly corrupt)
The Index draws on multiple expert opinion surveys that poll perceptions of public sector corruption scoring countries on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating high levels of perceived corruption and 10 indicating low levels of perceived corruption. Source: Transparency International, Corruption Perception Index; Year: 2008

17.5 = Women in parliament (as a percentage of the total number of representatives in the lower house)
Figures are based on information provided by national parliaments by 31st December 2007. Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union; Year: 2008
7.5 = Political Democracy Index
Source: EIU Analysts; Year: 2008
0.7 = Gender Inequality
A composite index that assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities.

Source: Gender Gap Index, World Economic Forum. Year: 2007

8.8 = Freedom of the press
The index measures the state of press freedom in the world, reflecting the degree of freedom journalists and news organisations enjoy in each country, and the efforts made by the state to respect and ensure respect for this freedom

Source: Reporters Without Borders; Year: 2007-2008

International Openness
 
59.1 = Exports + Imports % of GDP
Source: EIU; Year: 2008
5.1% = Foreign Direct Investment (flow) % of GDP
Source: EIU; Year: 2008
25.9% = Number of visitors as % of domestic population
Arrivals data correspond to international visitors to the economic territory of the country and include both tourists and same-day non residents visitors.

Source: UNWTO Compendium of Tourism Statistics; Year: 2006

1.7% = Net Migration (% of total population)
Net migration is the net average annual number of migrants during the period 1995-2000, that is the number of immigrants less the number of emigrants, including both citizen and non citizens.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, data refers to 2000-2005; Year: 2007

Demographics
 
15% = 15-34 year old males as a % of total population
Source: UN World Population Prospects; Year: 2008
0.98 = Gender ratio of population: women/men
Ratio Women/Men.

Source: UN Statistics, Social Indicators; Year: 2008

Regional & International Framework/conditions
 
4 = The extent of regional integration
Qualitative assessment of the level of membership of trade alliances, as NAFTA, ANSEAN, etc. Ranked 1-5 (Very low-very high) by EIU analysts.

Source: EIU Analysts; Year: 2008

Education
 
6.3% = Current education spending (% of GDP)
Public spending on education, total (% of GDP)
Source: UNESCO; Year: 2005-2006, dependent on availability
97.4% = Primary school enrolment ratio (% Net)
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of the number of children of official school age (as defined by the national education system) who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; Year: 2005-2006 dependent on availability

89.1% = Secondary school enrolment ratio (% Net)
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of the number of children of official school age (as defined by the national education system) who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; Year: 2005-2006 dependent on availability

58.1% = Higher education enrolment (% Gross)
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; Year: 2005-2006 dependent on availability

15.4 = Mean years of schooling
School life expectancy (years), Primary to tertiary.

Source: UNESCO; Year: 2005 and earlier years depending on availability

97.1% = Adult literacy rate (% of pop over 15)
Data refers to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics national literacy estimates from censuses or surveys.

Source: UNESCO, Year: 2007

Culture
 
1 =Hostility to foreigners/private property
Scored 0-4 by EIU analysts.

Source: EIU Risk Briefing; Year: 2008

4 = Importance of religion in national life
Qualitative assessment of the level of importance of religion in politics and social life. Ranked 1-5 (very low to very high) by EIU analysts.

Source: EIU Analysts; Year: 2008

5 = Willingness to fight
Qualitative assessment of the willingness of citizens to fight in wars. Ranked 1- 5 (very low to very high) by EIU analysts.

Source: EIU Analysts; Year: 2008

Material well-being
 
198.813 = Nominal GDP (US$PPP bn)
Nominal gross domestic product at 2008 US$ purchasing power parities.

Source: EIU; Year: 2008

198.9904 = Nominal GDP (US$bn)
Nominal gross domestic product US$ market prices.

Source: EIU; Year: 2008

27243 = GDP per capita
Nominal gross domestic product (US$) per capita.

Source: EIU; Year: 2008

39.2 = Gini-coefficient
The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution.

Source: UN Human Development Index 2007-2008 World Bank; EIU estimates; Year: Latest Available Year

6.1% = Unemployment %
ILO defines the unemployed as members of the economically active population who are without work but available for and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntary left work.

Source: EIU; Year: 2008

80 = Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; Year: 2006

4.2 = Infant mortality per 1,000 live births
Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; Year: 2008



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